By Pamela Elizabeth Clark
Whereas traditional maps could be expressed as outward-expanding formulae with well-defined important good points and comparatively poorly outlined edges, consistent Scale ordinary Boundary (CSNB) maps have well-defined obstacles that end result from average procedures and hence let spatial and dynamic relationships to be saw in a brand new method precious to knowing those procedures. CSNB mapping provides a brand new method of visualization that produces maps markedly assorted from these produced by means of traditional cartographic equipment.
In this strategy, any physique should be represented through a 3D coordinate procedure. For a standard physique, with its floor quite delicate at the scale of its dimension, destinations of good points should be represented via certain geographic grid (latitude and longitude) and elevation, or deviation from the triaxial ellipsoid outlined floor. a continuing floor in this physique should be segmented, its detailed neighborhood terranes enclosed, and their inter-relationships outlined, through the use of chosen morphologically identifiable reduction positive aspects (e.g., continental divides, plate limitations, river or present systems). during this approach, areas of contrast on a wide, primarily round physique may be mapped as two-dimensional ‘facets’ with their obstacles representing local to global-scale asymmetries (e.g., continental crust, continental and oceanic crust on the planet, farside unique thicker crust and nearside thinner influence punctuated crust at the Moon). In an identical demeanour, an abnormal item equivalent to an asteroid, with a floor that's tough at the scale of its measurement, will be logically segmented alongside edges of its impact-generated faces.
Bounded faces are imagined with hinges at occasional issues alongside limitations, leading to a foldable ‘shape model.’ therefore, bounded faces develop organically out of the main compelling typical good points. noticeable obstacles regulate the map’s extremities, and peripheral areas should not dismembered or grossly distorted as in traditional map projections. 2nd maps and 3D types develop out of an object’s most blatant face or terrane ‘edges,’ rather than arbitrarily by means of enforcing a standard grid method or utilizing frequently formed features to symbolize an abnormal surface.
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In pure topology, the middle has no significance: stretchability in the plane is endless and inconsequential, compared to the object’s overall shape, as represented by the number of handles or holes, as in a doughnut or a coffee mug. The CSNB technique identifies consequential features, and maps these as planar, shape-defining boundaries in terms of processes driven by these features, or origins. This leads to better, or at least higher-dimensional, understanding. The black shape superimposed on Fig.
The medial axis may include or be merged with fractures, faults and trenches, and wavefronts or critical boundaries redrawn accordingly. Inversely, the medial axis, a topological skeleton akin to a CSNB tree, could be portrayed in the greatest detail, and its stresses, including Coulomb stresses associated with earthquakes, emphasized by becoming critical boundaries, a CSNB map edge. 7 Demonstration A pipe cleaner demonstration (Fig. 9) is helpful in visualizing the CSNB method. In moving pipe cleaners from globe to table, the only geometry in play is development and not, as in conventional maps, projection.
Artists began to deliberately introduce distortion and depth, by, for example, choosing to position the vanishing point at other positions to emphasize or deemphasize certain features (van Thiel 1969). 6 Relationship to Perspective-Based and Anamorphic Drawing 23 Fig. 12 Three-dimensional surface-covering meshes for relatively (a) regular asteroid Vesta and (b) irregular asteroid Eros. Images courtesy of Tayfun Öner 24 1 Constant-Scale Natural Boundary Mapping in Context Fig. 13 (a) Nonlinear perspective, (b) conic rays intersecting a plane, (c) plane projections in space, relative to a unique station point, and (d) Plan reference.
Constant-Scale Natural Boundary Mapping to Reveal Global and Cosmic Processes by Pamela Elizabeth Clark