By Arthur Schopenhauer
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Книга Aristotle And ethical Realism Aristotle And ethical Realism Книги Психология, философия Автор: Robert A Heinaman Год издания: 1998 Формат: pdf Издат. :Westview Press Страниц: 248 Размер: 21,5 Mb ISBN: 0813391040 Язык: Английский0 (голосов: zero) Оценка:The query of ethical realism—whether our moral ideals leisure on a few aim foundation—is person who mattered as a lot to Aristotle because it does to us this day, and his writings in this subject proceed to supply idea for the modern debate.
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A prolific thinker who additionally held Rome's maximum political workplace, Cicero was once uniquely certified to jot down on political philosophy. during this ebook Professor Atkins presents a clean interpretation of Cicero's primary political dialogues - the Republic and legislation. Devoting cautious realization to shape in addition to philosophy, Atkins argues that those dialogues jointly probe the bounds of cause in political beliefs and discover the assets on hand to the statesman given those obstacles.
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Views of nature’, but the conception of philosophy that underpinned this inquiry was, in Epicurus’ words, ‘an activity which by arguments and discussion brings about the happy life’ (LS 25K). Hence, as Woodruff fully approves, the propriety of my calling the Hellenistic schools ‘experiments in philosophical power’. For an excellent study of how Zeno and Epicurus were perceived, and how they sought to be perceived, by their contemporaries, see Decleva Caizzi 1993. She emphasizes, as I do, the Socratic inﬂuence on general images of a philosophical life; but, whereas I am partly concerned with what the competing schools have in common, Decleva Caizzi focuses on differences of lifestyle between Zeno and Epicurus, which, she convincingly argues, reﬂect salient differences in their detailed speciﬁcations of the route to happiness.
What was that? ⁸ Zeno and Epicurus don’t start their ethical thought, as Aristotle does, by reviewing and systematizing established ideas about human aspirations and conceptions of a ﬂourishing life in a Greek polis. Many of Aristotle’s ethical and political concepts are ‘thick’ ones, deeply embedded in a network of such beliefs as the natural superiority of male to female, the right of the free male to rule over natural slaves, and the indignity ⁶ Quoted by Porphyry, Ad Marcellam 31 = Usener 221, and LS 25C.
And one must doubt whether they could have achieved much along these lines under the conditions of ancient politics. However, as I have already emphasized, they present themselves as arts of life for anyone. And because anyone can join the club, the relevant question is what would human society be like if large numbers of people became Stoics or Epicureans? How would the collective good present itself under those conditions? Rather than ﬁrst asking what Stoics or Epicureans as individuals are motivated to do about human welfare in general, we should ask how a society composed of such people would be disposed in relation to one another.
Colloqui by Arthur Schopenhauer