By Sung-Mo (Steve) Kang, Yusuf Leblebici, Chul Woo Kim
CMOS electronic built-in Circuits: research and layout is the main whole booklet out there for CMOS circuits. acceptable for electric engineering and laptop technology, this booklet begins with CMOS processing, after which covers MOS transistor versions, simple CMOS gates, interconnect results, dynamic circuits, reminiscence circuits, BiCMOS circuits, I/O circuits, VLSI layout methodologies, low-power layout suggestions, layout for manufacturability and layout for testability. This publication offers rigorous remedy of easy layout techniques with specific examples. It ordinarily addresses either the computer-aided research concerns and the layout matters for many of the circuit examples. a number of SPICE simulation effects also are supplied for representation of simple ideas. via rigorous research of CMOS circuits during this textual content, scholars should be in a position to study the basics of CMOS VLSI layout, that is the motive force in the back of the advance of complicated desktop undefined.
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Additional resources for CMOS Digital Integrated Circuits Analysis & Design
A p-well is created in an n-type substrate or, alternatively, an n-well is created in a p-type substrate. In the simple n-well CMOS fabrication technology presented here, the nMOS transistor is created in the ptype substrate, and the pMOS transistor is created in the n-well, which is built into the ptype substrate. In the twin-tub CMOS technology, additional tubs of the same type as the substrate can also be created for device optimization. The simplified process sequence for the fabrication of CMOS integrated circuits on a p-type silicon substrate is shown in Fig.
1. Note that the structure consists of three layers: The metal gate electrode, the insulating oxide (SiO2 ) layer, and the p-type bulk semiconductor (Si), called the substrate. As such, the MOS structure forms a capacitor, with the gate and the substrate acting as the two terminals (plates) and the oxide layer as the dielectric. The thickness of the silicon dioxide layer is usually between 10 nm and 50 nm. The carrier concentration and its local distribution within the semiconductor substrate can now be manipulated by the external voltages applied to the gate and substrate terminals.
After a topologically feasible layout is found, the mask layers are drawn (using a layout editor tool) according to the layout design rules. This procedure may require several small iterations in order to accommodate all the design rules, but the basic topology should not change very significantly. Following the final DRC (Design Rule Check), a circuit extraction procedure is performed on the-finished layout to determine the actual transistor sizes, and more importantly, the parasitic capacitances at each node.
CMOS Digital Integrated Circuits Analysis & Design by Sung-Mo (Steve) Kang, Yusuf Leblebici, Chul Woo Kim