By Vaclav Smil
Content material: China's Biophysical Foundations -- My chinese language stories -- demanding situations Of knowing -- Interdisciplinary views -- strength -- part a Century Of Advances -- carrying on with significance Of conventional Energies -- A Failed method -- From a brand new Saudi Arabia To matters approximately Oil safety -- A impressive Shift In strength Intensities -- nutrients -- The World's maximum Famine -- From Subsistence To Satiety -- nutritional Transitions -- Nitrogen In China's Agriculture -- Can China Feed Itself? -- setting -- Attitudes And Constraints -- the 1st Of The 5 components -- China's setting And defense -- rate Of China's Environmental swap -- Megaprojects And China's setting -- having a look forward by means of in retrospect -- Failed Forecasts -- Contending traits
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Extra resources for China's past, China's future : energy, food, environment
Predictable results include extensive destruction of arable and grazing land, accelerated erosion of exposed topsoils, and increasing air and water pollution. 22 Streams filled with mine spoils and increased sediment aggravate local floods, and erosion caused by mining adds almost another 300Mt of silt to the Huang (Yellow) River already overburdened with eroded loess. Local air pollution has increased twenty-four times for sulfur dioxide (SO2) and seventeen times for particulate matter. These are extraordinary increases caused by an unusually high concentration of inefficient coking plants and industrial boilers in one of China’s most affected counties – but all of the country’s industrial and urban regions have been experiencing unacceptably high air pollution levels, a state attributable to coal’s dominance in China’s energy supply, to inadequate coal cleaning capacities, and to inefficient combustion.
40 As we have learned from other megaprojects, this cost estimate is almost certainly an underestimate. Sanxia’s construction is now well under way: the river was diverted on 8 November 1997 and completion is planned for the year 2009. 41 Nuclear generation is China’s distant third choice for large-scale generation of electricity. After years of delays China’s first domestically designed nuclear power plant, a 300MW facility at Qinshan near Shanghai, was completed in 1992, and two years later the six-times-larger Daya Bay station in Guangdong, equipped with light-water French reactors based on a US design, began supplying Hong Kong and easing electricity supply shortages in the province.
17 Even with these innovations, international comparisons reveal the continuing inferiority of China’s large-scale coal mining. Typical coal recovery rates average no more than 50–60 per cent, compared to over 90 per cent in modern long-wall extraction. 4t/shift in the mid-1990s, it still remains only 30–40 per cent of European, and less than 15 per cent of average US levels. The official target of 2t/manshift by the year 2000 may not be reached. Large Chinese mines have a long way to go in order to achieve acceptable levels of coal dust and work safety.
China's past, China's future : energy, food, environment by Vaclav Smil