By Kiichi Sagawa (auth.), Thomas Kenner, Rudi Busse, Helmut Hinghofer-Szalkay (eds.)
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Additional info for Cardiovascular System Dynamics: Models and Measurements
In addition, the coronary circulation plays a significant role. The ventricle was shown capable of compensatory action as demonstrated by Lekven et al. (1973), as well as by others. The former investigators observed ventricular dilation, with maintenance of the same stroke volume, in response to moderate reduction of coronary oxygen supply. Such alterations involve altered geometrically related muscle stress, as Roy pointed out. Furthermore, different regions of the myocardium are activated at different times.
Models which describe the ventricle as a pure pressure source assume the left-hand side of eq. e. with a=S=y=O, thereby negating eq. (9). The series combination of a pressure source and a resistance operates with the left-hand member and the term containing S. Its dual is a flow source in parallel with a resistance. Since these 27 PUMP EQUATION sources do not contain features reflecting volume, they deny the existence of the Frank-Starling mechanism, It should be noted that ventricular characterization developed with two or three element models of muscle strips as structural units incorporated properties akin to the Frank-Starling mechanism as well as the Hill relation, thereby exhibiting sophistication at an early stage of ventricular modeling (Robinson, 1963; Beneken, 1965).
Demonstrated, in exercising dogs, that when the total peripheral resistance was prevented from dropping below the resting value, cardiac output would increase only slightly. This led to the conclusion of a causal relationship between cardiac output and peripheral resistance in the awake dog. 22 A. NOORDERGRAAF AND J. MELBIN When altered heart rate is involved, complexity increases. Sugimoto et al. (1966), as well as Kumada et al. (1967) and Cowley and Guyton (1971), observed in anesthetized dogs that cardiac output first increased, reached a maximum, then decreased for increasing pacing rates.
Cardiovascular System Dynamics: Models and Measurements by Kiichi Sagawa (auth.), Thomas Kenner, Rudi Busse, Helmut Hinghofer-Szalkay (eds.)