By Achilles J. Pappano PhD, Withrow Gil Wier PhD
Cardiovascular body structure offers a fantastic knowing of the way the cardiovascular method features in either well-being and illness. perfect on your systems-based curriculum, this name within the Mosby body structure Monograph sequence explains how the most recent techniques follow to real-life scientific situations.
- Get transparent, actual, and up to date insurance of the body structure of the cardiovascular system.
- grasp the fabric simply with goals at the beginning of every bankruptcy self-study questions, summaries, and keyword phrases and ideas and a multiple-choice overview examination to aid prep for USMLEs.
- grab the most recent recommendations in vascular, molecular, and mobile biology as they follow to cardiovascular functionality, due to molecular commentaries in each one chapter.
- observe details to scientific events using medical commentaries and highlighted scientific vignettes all through.
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Additional info for Cardiovascular Physiology: Mosby Physiology Monograph Series
When the membrane potential was clamped at levels negative to −80 mV in this isolated cell (see Figure 2-5), the electrostatic forces exceeded the chemical forces and an inward K+ current was induced (as denoted by the negative values of K+ current over this range of voltages). Note also that for Vm more negative than −80 mV, the curve has a steep slope. Thus when Vm equals or is negative to EK, a small change in Vm induces a substantial change in K+ current; that is, gK1 is large. During phase 4, the Vm of a myocardial cell is slightly less negative than EK (see Figure 2-6).
N Phase 4, resting potential. The transmembrane potential of the fully repolarized cell is determined mainly by the conductance of the cell membrane to K+. Two principal types of action potentials may be recorded from cardiac cells: Fast-response action potentials may be recorded from atrial and ventricular myocardial fibers and from specialized conducting (Purkinje) fibers. The action potential is characterized by a large-amplitude, steep upstroke, which is produced by the activation of the fast Na+ channels.
The rectification is most marked over the plateau (phase 2) range of transmembrane potentials (see Figures 2-5 and 2-12). This characteristic prevents excessive loss of K+ during the prolonged plateau, during which the electrostatic and chemical forces both favor the efflux of K+. The delayed rectifier K+ channels, which conduct the iK current, are also activated at voltages that prevail toward the end of phase 0. However, activation proceeds very slowly, over several hundreds of milliseconds. Hence activation of these channels tends to increase IKr (see next section) slowly and slightly during phase 2.
Cardiovascular Physiology: Mosby Physiology Monograph Series by Achilles J. Pappano PhD, Withrow Gil Wier PhD