By Kyung Cho, Irvin F. Hawkins
With an abundance of illustrations and tables to focus on severe details, this resource presents a realistic method of using CO2 as a distinction agent for diagnostic angiography, vascular intervention, and different interventional tactics in either adults and pediatrics. truly laying-out key issues within the technological know-how, method, and medical purposes of this method, this resource may be a continuing spouse for physicians treating numerous problems affecting arterial and venous circulate.
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Additional resources for Carbon Dioxide Angiography: Principles, Techniques, and Practices
Automatically measuring blood pressure at preset intervals is useful for detecting hypotension. In our study, when a pulmonary vapor lock developed due to administration of excessive volumes of CO2 and inadvertent administration of room air, blood pressure started to decrease within 20 seconds after embolism. We routinely measure blood pressure one minute after CO2 delivery. If the blood pressure drops by 10 mmHg after CO2 delivery, the CO2 delivery system must be checked for air-tight connections.
CO2 was injected at the rate of 5, 10, 20, and 30 cc/sec for two seconds and digital subtraction images were obtained. The spleens were observed during and after CO2 injections. After CO2 injections in each animal, the needle was removed and the puncture site was checked for evidence of bleeding. The spleens appeared unremarkable during and after CO2 injections. After removal of the needle, there was minor venous bleeding from the puncture site, which ceased spontaneously in three to five minutes.
Priming the catheter with 3 –5 mL of CO2 immediately prior to the injection of CO2 reduces gas compression, and helps gas delivery at a steady flow rate. An experimental study was undertaken in swine to examine if an explosive CO2 delivery into the splenic pulp produces splenic injury as in CO2 splenoportography (9). 7 mm in outer diameter) was placed into the splenic parenchyma (Fig. 8). CO2 was injected at the rate of 5, 10, 20, and 30 cc/sec for two seconds and digital subtraction images were obtained.
Carbon Dioxide Angiography: Principles, Techniques, and Practices by Kyung Cho, Irvin F. Hawkins