By P. Chartier, G. L. Ferrero, U. M. Henius, S. Hultberg, J. Sachau, M. Wiinblad
Biomass is determined to play an expanding function within the offer of strength, either within the industrialized global and in constructing nations, as drawback for the country of the worldwide atmosphere grows. the prospect for the acceleration of industrial creation has bought help from the expanding involvement of the massive energy manufacturers and the growing to be political commitments of numerous eu nations. The ninth eu Bioenergy convention was once held in Copenhagen, 24-27 June 1996. unlike earlier occasions, extra emphasis was once put on demonstrating bioenergy know-how on the market. Overviews on fresh achievements in advertisement or close to advertisement actions shaped the focus of the development, yet highlights of advances in technological know-how and technological improvement have been additionally offered, as well as papers overlaying environmental features of bioenergy. The lawsuits comprise 350 papers addressing the subsequent parts: fundamental creation of biomass; provision and construction of good biomass fuels; approaches for big energy crops; strategies for decentralized warmth and tool creation; techniques for construction of transportation fuels; marketplace, financial and environmental elements of bioenergy; and coverage measures to beat non-technical limitations
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6 72. 6 73. 2 12. 7 11. 5 10. 1 10. 1 77. 9 11. 7 10. 5 75. 6 78. 2 80. 7 80. 2 81. 5 19. 6 Th e firs t thre e digit s indicat e termina l temperatur e in ° C an d th e digi t followin g is holdin g tim e (h) . Dr y basis . 100 0 - 400 450 · 500 550 - 600 Termina l temperatur 650 700 - - 750 e (Celsius ) Fig . 2 . Yiel d o f coco a woo d charcoa l an d its volatil e an d fixe d carbo n content s as a functio n o f carbonisatio n temperature . 800 Charcoal and Glucose from Plantation Wastes 1521 Tabl e 5.
6 16. 8 16. 9 14. 9 16. 6 13. 7 10. 3 11. 4 10. 3 11. 8 58. 8 60. 0 60. 5 65. 1 66. 9 67. 7 72. 1 72. 7 72. 9 73. 2 71. 9 74. 5 30. 0 22. 0 17. 1 15. 1 59. 8 66. 6 72. 6 73. 2 12. 7 11. 5 10. 1 10. 1 77. 9 11. 7 10. 5 75. 6 78. 2 80. 7 80. 2 81. 5 19. 6 Th e firs t thre e digit s indicat e termina l temperatur e in ° C an d th e digi t followin g is holdin g tim e (h) . Dr y basis . 100 0 - 400 450 · 500 550 - 600 Termina l temperatur 650 700 - - 750 e (Celsius ) Fig . 2 . Yiel d o f coco a woo d charcoa l an d its volatil e an d fixe d carbo n content s as a functio n o f carbonisatio n temperature .
The hemicellulos e in the filtrates from steame d wheat stra w and wet oxidation s was hydrolyze d by an optimize d acid hydrolysi s of 4 %w/ v H S 0 at 121 °C for 10 minutes . The sample s were purifie d by combine d precipitatio n and ion exchang e treatmen t (Bjerr e et al, 1996). 004 Ì H S 0 as eluent . The hemicellulos e in the filtrates from steame d birc h wood was quantifie d as describe d previousl y (Kort e et al, 1991). 2-Furfura l and 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfura l were determine d by HPL C (Nucleosil 5C-18 column ) with a linear eluent gradien t of methano l (10-90 % ) at pH 3 (Bjerr e et al, 1996).
Biomass for Energy and the Environment by P. Chartier, G. L. Ferrero, U. M. Henius, S. Hultberg, J. Sachau, M. Wiinblad