By Edward C. Peck, U.S. Forest Service
Wooden bending is an historic craft that's of key value in lots of industries this present day, particularly in those who manufacture furnishings, boats and ships, agricultural implements, instrument handles, and wearing items. Of different equipment everyday to supply curved elements of wooden, bending is the main low-priced of fabric, the best of participants of excessive power, and maybe the most cost effective. lengthy event has developed useful bending options and expert craftsmen to use them. but advertisement operations usually maintain severe losses as a result of breakage throughout the bending operation or the solving approach that follows. there's a longfelt want for extra trustworthy wisdom approximately: (1) standards for choice of bending inventory; (2) greater tools of seasoning and plasticizing wooden for bending; (3) extra effective machines for the bending operation; (4) thoughts for drying and solving the bent half to the specified form; and (5) the impact of bending at the power houses of wooden.
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Additional info for Bending solid wood to form
With shrinkage, the curvature is increased. With swelling, the curvature is reduced as the piece tends to straighten. Red oak specimens, 1 inch thick, steamed at a moisture content of 25 percent and bent to a radius of 25/8 inches were dried to a moisture content of 8 percent. After the distance between the legs was measured, the bent specimens were brought to a moisture content of 21 percent. At this moisture content, the legs were more than twice as far apart as at 8 percent. When redried to 8 percent, the legs were still 60 percent farther apart than originally.
The mean measurements for 11 sticks are shown in figure 18. The zones of maximum compression fall to the right and left of the center of the arc, but from 1 to 2 inches away from the center point. The pieces were clamped to the form at the center before bending commenced. The clamp may have increased the friction between the stick, the form, and the strap in the central portion. The increased friction may have prevented the central portion from assuming the full amount of compressive strain. The compressive strain was not restricted to the curved portion of the stick but extended for about 1½ inches along each straight leg.
The following tabulation gives endwise-compressibility values determined by this method: The values in this tabulation indicate that the wood of the species with values equal to or higher than those for Wisconsingrown white oak should be suitable for making sharp bends, sweetgum and black willow for moderate bends, and eucalyptus and coigue for slight bends. The low value for Sitka spruce indicates that it is unsuited for bending. The mean endwise-compressibility value can be used in the following formula to estimate the minimum bending radius at which successful bends can be expected in 50 percent of the pieces for stock of a given thickness: (11) where r is the radius of the form, h is the thickness of the piece, ec is the compressive strain, just before failure, inch per inch, considered positive, et is the tensile strain associated with ec, inch per inch, considered positive.
Bending solid wood to form by Edward C. Peck, U.S. Forest Service